ROWAN UNIVERSITY POLICY
Title: Laboratory and Environmental Safety
Subject: Facilities and Operations
A. Federal Laboratory Safety Standard 29 CFR 1910.1450
B. Prudent Practices for Handling Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories, National Academy Press: Washington, D.C. 1981
D. Hazardous Waste Management at Educational Institutions, NACUBO: Washington, D.C. 1987. NJAC 7:26-1, 4, 7-13A, 16, 6A, 17;
E. Hazardous Waste Regulations, NJDEP: Trenton, NJ (current edition)
All hazardous materials will be stored and disposed of in a safe, legal, appropriate manner as outlined in appropriate regulatory codes (e.g., State fire codes, State DEP regulations), or in accordance with GASS (e.g., Prudent Practices for Chemicals in Laboratories).
- Attachment 1, Hazardous Waste Program For Rowan University Laboratories
- Attachment 2, Basic Safety Information
- Attachment 3, Personal Protective Equipment
- Attachment 4, General Safety Equipment
- Attachment 5, Emergency Equipment and Information
- Attachment 6, Emergency/Contingency Planning
HAZARDOUS WASTE PROGRAM FOR ROWAN UNIVERSITY LABORATORIES
PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
- The correct use of personal protective equipment (PPE) can help reduce or minimize injuries to individuals working with hazardous materials or wastes. This apparel is intended to protect normal street clothing or skin from contact with hazardous materials.
- There are several types of protective apparel normally included within the term PPE. Some examples are eye, hand, body, foot, and respiratory protection. The use of any PPE must be very carefully matched against any of the materials involved and the degree of protection required. For example, almost all protective apparel can develop static electricity, so that if an individual does not ground, or bond himself or herself, there is a great danger that a static discharge might ignite volatile materials. In addition, protective apparel has time limits on the amount of time it can resist hazardous materials.
- Individuals wearing protective apparel needs to be mindful of those limits for the apparel and the type of hazardous material to which he/she is being exposed; therefore, it is important to be familiar with the proper selection and use of PPE prior to starting work.
- All PPE must be inspected before each use, and it is the responsibility of the individual wearer to accomplish this. A Pre-use inspection should include: looking for tears, punctures, discoloration, or brittle spots, which could indicate a defective condition. Defective PPE must not be worn or used. Laboratory workers should know the appropriate techniques for donning (putting on) and doffing (removing) contaminated protective clothing in an emergency.
- Examples of Personal Protective Equipment and Its Use
- Eye Protection:Eye protection is required for everyone (employees, students and visitors) in any location where chemicals are stored or handled. Protective eyewear is designed to keep material out of the eyes, or off of the face.
- Safety Glasses:Safety glasses must be made in accordance with the Standard for Occupational and Educational Eye and Face Protection (ANSI Z87. 1), from the American National Standards Institute. These requirements include: a minimum lens thickness of 3mm, impact resistance standards to be met, passage of a flammability test, and lens retaining frames. These can be prescription or non-prescription. Side shields may be attached to safety glasses that do not have built-in shields; however, side shields offer only limited protection for objects or materials approaching from the side of the wearer, and do not offer adequate protection against splashes or mists/vapors
- Goggles and Face Shields:
- Goggles are required for handling chemicals and hazardous materials within the confines of the facility. They are intended for use when there is danger of splashing chemicals, flying particles, or vapors/mists. Only "chemical style" goggles will be approved for use in the facility.
- Face shields offer some protection to the face and neck. Full-face shields should always be worn when maximum protection from harmful materials, especially liquids or particles, is needed. Safety glasses or goggles should be worn under the shield.
- Other Protective Clothing
The PPE Ensemble includes gloves, lab coats or aprons; coveralls or full body suits, and protective footwear constructed of fabric, or special materials such as butyl rubber or Tyvek.
- Gloves must be worn whenever it is necessary to handle rough or sharp objects, hot or cold materials, or whenever protection is needed against exposure to chemicals. Skin contact is a potential source of exposure to toxic materials. Gloves should not be worn around moving equipment or where they could become entangled and damaged.
- Lab coats are intended to prevent contact with dirt and minor chemical splashes or spills encountered in laboratory scale work. Lab coats, depending upon the materials they are made from, do not significantly resist penetration by organic liquids, and if contaminated, should be removed immediately.
- Aprons of plastic or rubber generally provide better protection for corrosive or irritating liquids, but can complicate injuries in the event a wearer is involved in a fire.
- Coveralls or full body suits, especially disposal ones, are generally preferred in high-risk situations. Generally, any coverall will have limitations as to the degree of protection offered and must be matched against the type of operation being performed and the materials involved.
- Foot protection such as rubber boots or plastic shoe covers may be required to avoid possible exposure to corrosive chemicals or solvents; however, shoe covers can increase the possibility of falling since they generally do not exert a great deal of friction on walking surfaces.
- Sandals or open toed shoes are prohibited in laboratories
- Respiratory Protection
- The primary method for protection of laboratory personnel from airborne contaminates is by engineered ventilation (e.g. fume hoods, exhaust systems). However, there are circumstances when these systems are not available, or increased personal protection is required. Should this be the case, suitable respiratory protection must be provided and used.
- Under Public Employee's Occupational Safety and Health Adoption of the Federal OSHA Standards (29CFR 1910), only equipment listed and approved by the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) and National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) may be used. In addition, a respirator program must be in place within the institution.
- This program requires written information on the limitations, fitting methods, inspection and cleaning for each type of respirator that is used at the institution. The program begins with a physical examination prior to an individual being entered into a program that requires use of a respirator [Federal OSHA 29 CFR 1910.134 (b) (10)]. Specific training and fit testing of a respirator to each individual is also required
- Non-Emergency Respiratory Protection
- There are several types of non-emergency respirators available for protection in atmospheres that are not immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH), but could be detrimental to an individual after prolonged or repeated exposure to a toxic atmosphere or substance.
- These respirators must be used only in atmospheres where the oxygen level is within normal range (19.5% approximately). Generally, use of a respirator will require the use of some other PPE (e.g., protective coveralls and gloves to protect skin from splashes of corrosives or materials that can be absorbed through the skin). Some types of common respirators are outlined below:
- Chemical Cartridge Air Purifying Respirators (APR) are designed for protection only against a particular individual or class of vapors or gases as specified on the cartridge. These units work by absorbing or filtering the contaminants out of the air. Activated charcoal is probably the most common type of absorbent. Because breakdown of the material of which the respirator is constructed is possible, it is important that the user know the type of hazardous material they are working with and any odors associated with the material. These respirators can be of complete or half-face coverage.
- Dust, Fume and Mist Respirators:
- These can be used only for limited protection against a particular class of dusts, fumes and mists; as specified by the manufacturer. These respirators trap toxic materials in a filter of fiber material. These are disposable units which are discarded when you can no longer easily breathe through them.
- Mask type respirators, such as surgical masks," are of little value and offer unsatisfactory protection in a laboratory environment. These types of respirators will not be used in Rowan laboratories.
- All respirators have certain drawbacks. For example, difficulty in breathing when the filter becomes clogged (a sign the filters must be changed), or over breathing. Over breathing occurs when the face piece collapses against the wearer's face because of insufficient airflow through the filters. This results from an improperly fitted face piece.
- An improperly fitted face piece will allow contaminated air into the wearer's respiratory system.
- Emergency Respirators:
- Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA) are for trained emergency response personnel and are not available to employees, students, or guests. These devices consist of: An air supply cylinder, generally 5-30 minutes, a harness assembly to strap the unit on the wearer's back, and a regulator, which is hooked to the air supply cylinder.
- A protective ensemble is always required when wearing a self-contained breathing apparatus.